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In other words, there is no other possible universe on par with our own, because otherwise God would have created neither. But then a further question arises: Why were the gears misaligned? This essay will explain why Leibniz accepted the PSR, its various applications, and its place in contemporary philosophy. Or is he saying merely that our universe cannot contain such things? The earliest recorded application of the PSR seems to be Anaximander c. 547 BCE: “The earth stays at rest because of equality, since it is no more fitting for what is situated at the center and is equally far from the extremes to move up rather than down or sideways.”[2]. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. This is one type of Cosmological argument. The actual existence of the latter is explained by the principle of sufficient reason, which asserts that there is an adequate reason to account for the existence and nature of everything that could conceivably not exist. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). To these two great principlescould be added four more: the Principle of the Best, thePredicate-in-Notion Principle, the Principle of the Identityof Indiscernibles, and the Principle of Continuity. Åsne!Dorthea!Grøgaard!!!!! This statement came to be known as the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR). G.W. “The Identity of Indiscernibles,”, Dasgupta, Shamik, “Metaphysical Rationalism,”, Jorati, Julia. ichika Nito’s YouTube channel Instead of arguing from cause itself, Leibniz argued there must be a sufficient reason for the existence of the universe. Theodicy: the question of why God allows evil to exist or why He allows human suffering. And so on and on. 1. Leibniz’s Argument for the Principle of Sufficient Reason from Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Volume 50, December 2018 , Issue 2 , pp 229-241 Original language: English The Principle of Sufficient Reason says that any actual state of affairs must have a sufficient explanation — “reason” in an explanatory sense — for it to be actual. He argues that, as rational creatures, we are entitled to seek a rational explanation for the universe: Heidegger draw an example from Leibniz had …show more content… London: Routledge, 2000. "There can be found no fact that is true or existent, or any true proposition," he wrote, "without there being a sufficient reason for its being so and not otherwise, although we cannot know these reasons in most cases." Indianapolis: Hackett, 1982. William Lane Craig on Leibniz’s Contingency Argument [Reasonable Faith] Leibnizian Contingency Argument – InspiringPhilosophy [YouTube] Contingency Argument [Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy] Principle of Sufficient Reason [SEP]. B. Leibniz Argument from Sufficient Reason 1. The most interesting quirk of Leibniz’s use of this principle is his insistence on the “bestness” of the natural world. “[Newton believed that] space is something absolutely uniform, and without the things placed in it, one point of space absolutely does not differ in any way from another point of space. (1) Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber (ed. Imagine that your bicycle keeps dropping its chain. The mechanic informs you that the problem cannot be fixed because there is no reason why your bike drops its chain: it just does. G. W. Leibniz: Philosophical Essays. The earliest recorded application of the PSR seems to be Anaximander c. 547 BCE:“The earth stays at rest because of equality, since it is no more fitting for what is situated at the center and is equally far from the extremes to move up rather than down or sideways.”Also prior to Leibniz, Parmenides, Archimedes, Abelard, S… Suppose there seemed to be two indiscernible spheres, sharing all of their properties: “each made of chemically pure iron, had a diameter of one mile, had the same temperature, color, and so on….”[6] But then there would be no sufficient reason for either one of the indiscernible spheres to be in the place it currently occupies and not the other. Gottfried Leibniz's cosmological argument, also known as the contingency argument. 1W. (2) G.H.R. The Principle of Sufficient Reason a. He holds a PhD in philosophy from the University of Washington, Seattle, an MA in philosophy from King’s College London, and a BA in philosophy from the University of Arizona, Tucson. Popes' "An Essay On … But there is controversy over its modal status, i.e., whether it is necessarily true or contingently true. Explaining a contingent truth with another contingent truth faces an infinite chain of “why” questions. Reasons to Think PSR is True 2. His meditations on the difficult theory of the point were related to problems encountered in optics, space, and movement; they were published in 1671 under the general title. The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause. In particular, in a letter to Clarke Leibniz infers the Identity of Indiscernibles from the Principle of Sufficient Reason (L V, 21).2 Specifically Leibniz there attempts to derive the Identity of Indiscernibles from an application of the Principle of Sufficient Reason to God’s act of creation, namely that God has a reason to create the world he creates. This is one type of Cosmological argument. [4] Now, it isn’t a necessary truth that Washington crossed the Delaware: it could have been the case that Washington didn’t cross the Delaware; his crossing is a contingent truth: true, but could have been false. Leibniz never explicitly offers an argument for the PSR, but it’s suggested by his definition of truth in this passage: “… it is evident that all truths … have an a priori [i.e., not sensory-based] proof, or some reason why they are truths rather than not. While the details of this argument and its rebuttals are beyond the scope of this article, Alexander Pruss successfully defends the PSR against Peter van Inwagen’s allegation that it implies modal fatalism in his book The Principle of Sufficient Reason. Leibniz sometimes suggests that the Principle of the Best andthe Predicate-in-N… Leibniz claims that a true statement is one where the predicate “belongs” to the subject. [3] In a 1716 letter to Samuel Clarke §5.125. Schopenhauer On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason by John David Ebert - Duration: ... Leibniz’ Contingency Argument - Duration: 5:15. drcraigvideos 440,895 views. Reconstruction of Leibniz’s Cosmological Argument, Monadology 36-38: The existence of the universe, whether it always existed or began, is a truth of fact. This sounds like the PSR, however he also believes that there are things that don’t “come to be,” and some of these things (e.g., the pre-existent disordered motion before mathematical order is imposed on it by the demiurge) have no cause or reason. (Note that Leibniz’s argument relates to a scholastic debate centered on the notion of “Buridan’s Ass.”) The universe exists 4. Explaining a contingent truth with another contingent truth faces an infinite chain of “why” questions. and trans.). Leibniz - The Priniple of Sufficient Reason and his Argument for the Existence of God from Leibniz, "The Monadology" (1714): "... we can find no true or existent fact, no true assertion, without there being a sufficient reason why it is thus and not otherwise, although most of … Leibniz’s main objective was to take Aquinas 's foundation within his cosmological argument and tweak it until absolute clarity was established with what he entitled Principle of sufficient reason. Also prior to Leibniz, Parmenides, Archimedes, Abelard, Spinoza, and Anne Conway were all proponents of some form of the principle. The argument that Leibniz gives for the PSR in Demonstration of Primary Propositions goes as follows: Proposition: Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR): “No fact can be real or existent, no statement true, unless there be a sufficient reason why it is so and not otherwise, although most often these reasons cannot be known to us.”[5] Argument 1: God Is Leibniz may be willing to grant that there is indeterminacy with regard to certain facts. Therefore God exists. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Leibniz, Gottfried. The principle of sufficient reason states that everything must have a reason or a cause.The modern formulation of the principle is usually attributed to Gottfried Leibniz, although the idea was conceived of and utilized by various philosophers who preceded him, including Anaximander, Parmenides, Archimedes, Plato and Aristotle, Cicero, Avicenna, Thomas Aquinas, and Spinoza. ‘Crossed the Delaware’ is the predicate. Leibniz moves the focus away from causes and beginnings and focuses on the nature of explanation itself. Sufficient reason: A “reason which has no need of another reason.”[3] A self-sufficient reason. To be a bachelorette is to be unmarried. What PSR is Not b. Given Leibniz's Principle of Sufficient Reason (hereafter: the PSR), according to which each fact has an explanation, there must be a … 1W. Instead, he began a life of professional service to noblemen, primarily the dukes of Hanover (Georg Ludwig became George I of England in 1714, two years before Leibniz's death). Leibniz and the Monadology. This is in violation of the PSR. Leibniz developed two proofs of God’s existence: the Cosmological Argument and a version of the Ontological Argument. Savile, Anthony. Returning to the bicycle example, say that you’re able to explain the dropping of its chain because of misaligned gears. Second, is sufficient reason. Leibniz’s argument is best thought of as beginning with a question which he poses at the end of the first paragraph of our reading for today: Why is there any world at all, and why is it the way that it is? Since Washington did cross the Delaware River, the statement ‘Washington crossed the Delaware’ is true. Objections 3.1 Explaining God 3.2 Quantum mechanics 3.3 Collapse and trans.). Dasgupta, Shamik, “Metaphysical Rationalism,” Noûs 50/2, 2016: 379–418. 5:15. Having ascribed to existent monads indestructibility, self-sufficiency, and imperviousness to extrinsic causality, Leibniz distinguished truths of reason, whose nonexistence would involve a … Pikkert, Owen. Quotations from al Farabi and al Ghazali are taken from this work. Also, Daniel mentions how Leibniz likely had the first conception of the unconscious and its determination of human behavior. Marc Bobro is Professor and Chair of Philosophy at Santa Barbara City College in California. Leibniz’s core thought is that this question must have an answer, and that the only satisfactory answer to this question will involve God. The argument is as follows: 1. [10] Leibniz’s concern to avoid brute facts, uncaused events, and truths without reasons, however, remains a living concern for contemporary philosophers, although the terminology often differs.[11]. His ‘Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles,’ that, Leibniz also uses the PSR to argue for God’s existence. Necessity, Contingency, Possible Worlds 2. His professional duties w… ON SOME LEIBNIZIAN ARGUMENTS FOR THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON 3 conclude that, while one can give such an argument, the resulting principle is close to trivial, and hence the PSR which Leibniz derives is uninteresting. and trans.). There must be a reason. Leibniz can’t be accused of arbitrarily exempting the explanatory ultimate from the principle of sufficient reason, but that is what the atheist tries to do. Leibniz claims that a, Leibniz draws some important consequences from the PSR. Such a reason must go outside the series of contingencies. Therefore, by the PSR, if what seem to be two things share all of their properties, then they are actually one and the same thing: there’s only one sphere. Some philosophers have associated the principle of sufficient reason with "ex nihilo nihil fit". sufficient reason 2. Leibniz may be writing this because he is frustrated with Clarke at this point in his correspondence and doesn’t want to engage in defending the principle itself. The Principle of Sufficient Reason is a powerful and controversial philosophical principle stipulating that everything must have a reason, cause, or ground. In fact, for many persons, this contention seems almost obvious. On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason. (1) Roger Ariew and Daniel Garber (ed. In fact, for many persons, this contention seems almost obvious. Things that are caused and states of affairs do not just happen without reason. [T]he methodological proposal is rooted in the thought that unless Sufficient Reason holds in full generality the world of fact will scarcely be comprehensible at all” (Savile, 37). The mechanic informs you that the problem cannot be fixed because there is, “No fact can hold or be real, and no proposition can be true, unless there is a sufficient reason why it is so and not otherwise.”, According to the PSR, there are no brute, unexplained facts; no uncaused events or anything happening without a cause; and no claims or beliefs are true without there being a, “The earth stays at rest because of equality, since it is no more fitting for what is situated at the center and is equally far from the extremes to move up rather than down or sideways.”, “… it is evident that all truths … have an a priori [i.e., not sensory-based] proof, or some reason why they are truths rather than not. This passage seems to indicate that indiscernible entities, such as vacua and atoms, are possible—that God has the power to actualize them—and that therefore the PSR is contingent. Leibniz's argument states that even if the universe had always been in existence, an adequate or sufficient reason for its existence would still be required, because we need establish why there is something rather than nothing. The argument 3. But this is the only passage of its sort, so the jury is still out over the modal status of Leibniz’s PSR. The argument that Leibniz gives for the PSR in Demonstration of Primary Propositions goes as follows: Proposition: Leibniz believed his question as to why something exists rather than nothing must have an answer. Annoyed, you take it to a bike shop to determine the cause in order to fix the problem. [4] Strictly speaking, according to Leibniz, in every true statement, the concept of the predicate is contained in the concept of the subject. [10] Plato says in the Timaeus that it is impossible for anything to come to be without a cause. Therefore, God exists Bobro is also the bassist and tubist for the mythopoetic punk band Crying 4 Kafka and collaborates on art with Elizabeth Folk. Leibniz also uses the PSR to argue for God’s existence. A chain of answers to “why” questions that fizzles out or continues indefinitely cannot constitute a sufficient reason. Also, Daniel mentions how Leibniz likely had the first conception of the unconscious and its determination of human behavior. Leibniz Cosmological Argument Analysis. 1. Time is simply the order of successive things and their states. Therelation among these principles is more complicated than one mightexpect. The case is the same with respect to time.”. Wolff and Schopenhauer, among others, defended versions of the PSR after Leibniz, but the PSR has never been the consensus view of philosophers; Plato, Descartes, and Hume were all detractors, to name just three. “The Contingency of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles” Ergo 4/31, 2017: 899-929. https://www.britannica.com/topic/principle-of-sufficient-reason, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Principle of Sufficient Reason. Having ascribed to existent monads indestructibility, self-sufficiency, and imperviousness to extrinsic causality, Leibniz distinguished truths of reason, whose nonexistence would involve a contradiction, from truths of fact, whose existence depended on God’s free choice. In each such case, the ultimate sufficient reason is the free choice of God. Popes' "An Essay On … London: Everyman, 1995. The Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR) is a controversial principle stipulating that everything must have a reason, or cause, or a grounding. The German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz made a similar argument with his principle of sufficient reason in 1714. The German philosopher Gottfried Leibniz made a similar argument with his principle of sufficient reason in 1714. He exists by a necessity of his own nature. Spinoza, Baruch. Therefore God exists. D1: x is the world =df. This way of thinking seems to point to the PSR as a necessary truth—true in every possible world. Leibniz's argument from the Principle of sufficient reason is an interesting argument for the existence of God, but it goes beyond just God's existence. Annoyed, you take it to a bike shop to determine the cause in order to fix the problem. After university study in Leipzig and elsewhere, it would have been natural for him to go into academia. Theodicy: the question of why God allows evil to exist or why He allows human suffering. what is the principle of perfection. the actual world is the best of all possible worlds. Leibniz (1646 – 1716) is the Principle of Sufficient Reason’s most famous proponent, but he’s not the first to adopt it. [9] Leibniz (1), Third Letter to Clarke, 325. We conclude with an examination of the emerging contemporary discussion of the Principle. Everything which exists has a sufficient explanation of its existence (the principle of sufficient reason) 2. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Philosophical Writings. The argument in Primary Truths proceeds along the following lines. Indianapolis & Cambridge: Hackett, 1989. x is the aggregate consisting of every contingent thing that ever did exist, does now exist, or ever will exist. Leibniz bought into Aquinas’ arguments regarding cause but saw that it did not address the why of the cause. There’s a sufficient reason why a truth of fact is true. Much of the criticism has focused on the first premise of the principle of sufficient reason … It also constrains the attributes of God to be a transcendent, uncaused, unembodied mind, who necessarily exists. And so on and on. Leibniz stated sufficient reason is one of the basic laws of traditional logic of logicians. This simple demand for thoroughgoing intelligibility yields some of the boldest and most challenging theses in the history of philosophy. Such a reason must go, “Since there is an infinity of possible universes in God’s ideas, and since only one of them can exist, there must be a sufficient reason for God’s choice, a reason which determines him towards one thing rather than another.”. Regarding Descartes, even though he sometimes insists that “nothing comes from nothing,” he also claims that God “creates” metaphysical and mathematical truths. The argument is grounded on providing explanations for entities. “The Contingency of Leibniz’s Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles”. Principle of sufficient reason, in the philosophy of the 17th- and 18th-century philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, an explanation to account for the existence of certain monads despite their contingency. -81- (a) Contingency and Sufficient Reason Leibniz gives what is essentially the same proof in slightly different forms in different works; we can sum up his line of thought as follows. Parkinson and Mary Morris (ed. Leibniz’s argument from the Principle of sufficient reason is an interesting argument for the existence of God, but it goes beyond just God’s existence. Corrections? “The fundamental principle of reasoning is that there is nothing without a reason; or to explain the matter more distinctly that there is no truth for which a reason does not subsist” (Leibniz [2], “Metaphysical Consequences of the Principle of Reason,” 172). Leibniz’s argument from the Principle of sufficient reason is an interesting argument for the existence of God, but it goes beyond just God’s existence. Rather than focusing on an infinite regress of causes, Leibnizian arguments rely on the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR), which holds that everything has an explanation, to argue that only a necessary being, i.e., one who does not rely on anything other than itself for an explanation of its existence, can provide an explanation for why the universe exists. According to Leibniz, everything has a sufficient reason. Quotations from al Farabi and al Ghazali are taken from this work. what are the reasons of our existence (leibniz) 1) principle of sufficient reason 2) principle of perfection. Leibniz, Gottfried. Ethics and Selected Letters. For Leibniz, the idea that the universe (or even God) could exist as a mere brute fact was unfathomable. Leibniz holds that every state of affairs has an explanation, even if we must admit that we often do not have sufficient information to provide an explanation. Imagine that your bicycle keeps dropping its chain. Sufficient reason: A “reason which has no need of another reason.”[3] A self-sufficient reason. In this entry we begin by explaining the Principle and then turn to the history of the debates around it. there is some sort of explanation, known or unknown, for everything. Rationale for Premise (3): If there is some independent sufficient reason for the world, that thing cannot be contingent. Leibniz’s Cosmological Argument – The Principle of Sufficient Reason By Kevin Rogers 1 Introduction On 27 September I provided a presentation of Lebniz’s argument for the existence of God based on the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR): “No fact can be real or existent, no statement true, unless there be a sufficient reason why it is so and not otherwise, although most often these reasons cannot be known to us.”[5] Argument 1: God Is Instead of arguing from cause itself, Leibniz argued there must be a sufficient reason for the existence of the universe. Leibniz's "Philosophical Optimism" or Sufficient Reason. He specializes in the history of modern philosophy, especially Leibniz. . See also Leibniz’s Discourse on Metaphysics §13 and his Fourth and Fifth letters to Samuel Clarke. Leibniz’s Argument for the Principle of Sufficient Reason from Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Volume 50, December 2018 , Issue 2 , pp 229-241 Original language: English “The Modal Status of Leibniz’s Principle of Sufficient Reason.” Unpublished. Thesis!presentedfor!the!degree!of! And this is just what is meant when it is commonly said that nothing happens without a cause, or, that there is nothing without a reason.”, All statements involve a subject and a predicate, e.g., ‘Washington crossed the Delaware.’ ‘Washington’ is the subject. (2) G.H.R. Jorati, Julia. For even if God were to produce only that which is in accordance with the laws of wisdom, the objects of power and of wisdom are different, and should not be confused” (Leibniz [1], 170f.). The principle of sufficient reason assumes great prominence in Leibniz’s philosophy, most notably in his accounts of substance, causality, freedom, and optimism. [11] Dasgupta, 12, for example, argues for a version of the PSR that is formulated in terms of “grounds.”. / Leibniz’s Contingency Argument / Everything that exists has an explanation of its existence (either in the necessity of its own nature or in an external cause). Get your 100% original paper on any topic done in as little as 3 hours. New music used with permission from ichika Nito. Other remarks suggest that he might accept some reasoning like this: All statements involve a subject and a predicate, e.g., ‘Washington crossed the Delaware.’ ‘Washington’ is the subject. His ‘Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles,’ that if what seem to be two distinct things share all of their properties, then they are actually one and the same thing, follows from the PSR. To conclude, Daniel comments on Leibniz’s early conception of relativity in space and how it came from his understanding of the Principle of Sufficient Reason with respect to God. There’s a sufficient reason why a truth of fact is true. Leibniz developed two proofs of God’s existence: the Cosmological Argument and a version of the Ontological Argument. This statement came to be known as the Principle of Sufficient Reason (PSR). We will write a custom Essay on Leibniz’s Argument Analysis specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. Leibniz (1646 – 1716) is the Principle of Sufficient Reason’s most famous proponent, but he’s not the first to adopt it. there is some sort of explanation, known or unknown, for everything. Assume objects A and B are qualitatively exactly alike but non-identical. It also constrains the attributes of God to be a transcendent, uncaused, unembodied mind, who necessarily exists. Leibniz's "Philosophical Optimism" or Sufficient Reason. The Principle of Sufficient Reason states that, in the case of any positive truth, there is some reason for it, i.e. Enter your email address to follow this page and receive notifications of new essays by email. This principle received various formulations from Leibniz and from later philosophers. Leibniz believed his question as to why something exists rather than nothing must have an answer. And this is just what is meant when it is commonly said that nothing happens without a cause, or, that there is nothing without a reason.”[3]. Leibniz often expresses this in terms of God: if two things were identical, there would be no sufficient reason for God to choose to put one in the first place and the other in the second place. The basic idea behind the principle is this: [2] Aristotle, On the Heavens 2.13 295b11-16. The argument 3. If it were, it would be part of the world and so not independent from it. ON SOME LEIBNIZIAN ARGUMENTS FOR THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON 3 conclude that, while one can give such an argument, the resulting principle is close to trivial, and hence the PSR which Leibniz derives is uninteresting. there must be a sufficient reason for anything to exist. Things that are caused and states of affairs do not just happen without reason. Parkinson and Mary Morris (ed. In other words, even though everything that exists may have a sufficient reason, it is careless to judge that they in fact do or must. A chain of answers to “why” questions that fizzles out or continues indefinitely cannot constitute a sufficient reason. The arguments offered by these thinkers can be grouped into three basic types: (1) what may be called the kalam cosmological argument for a first cause of the beginning of the universe; (2) the Thomist cosmological argument for a sustaining ground of being of the world; and (3) the Leibnizian cosmological argument for a sufficient reason why anything at all exists. The world does not seem to contain within itself the reason for its own existence. Word count: 997. Reconstruction of Leibniz’s Cosmological Argument, Monadology 36-38: The existence of the universe, whether it always existed or began, is a truth of fact. Updates? Leibniz asserts in the Monadology §§31–32,“Our reasonings are based on two great principles, that ofcontradiction… [and] that of sufficientreason” (G II 612/AG 217). According to the PSR, there are no brute, unexplained facts; no uncaused events or anything happening without a cause; and no claims or beliefs are true without there being a reason why they’re true. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court, 1974. Leibniz’s own view is that space is the order of co-existing things and their states, and nothing more. ... therefore, bad actions and vices are created for sufficient reason as well. -81- (a) Contingency and Sufficient Reason Leibniz gives what is essentially the same proof in slightly different forms in different works; we can sum up his line of thought as follows. Returning to the bicycle example, say that you’re able to explain the dropping of its chain because of misaligned gears. . Hume argues that since the ideas of cause and its effect are separable, we can clearly imagine an object without its cause. This is essentially the first premise of the Leibnizian Contingency Argument (Everything that exists has an explanation of its existence). The Principle of Sufficient Reason states that, in the case of any positive truth, there is some reason for it, i.e. Now, it follows … that it is impossible there should be a reason why God, preserving the same situations of bodies among themselves, should have placed them in space after one certain particular manner and not otherwise …. Omissions? Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was born in Leipzig, Germany, on July 1, 1646. and trans.). Wolff and Schopenhauer, among others, defended versions of the PSR after Leibniz, but the PSR has never been the consensus view of philosophers; Plato, Descartes, and Hume were all detractors, to name just three. Leibniz’s Cosmological Argument – The Principle of Sufficient Reason By Kevin Rogers 1 Introduction On 27 September I provided a presentation of Lebniz’s argument for the existence of God based on the Principle of Sufficient Reason. Category: Historical Philosophy, Metaphysics, Philosophy of Religion L. Craig, The Cosmological Argument from Plato to Leibniz (Macmillan, London, 1980). [5] For Leibniz, every truth has its determining reasons, even those that obtain in merely possible worlds, for possible worlds too have their own sets of truths. It also constrains the attributes of God to be a transcendent, uncaused, unembodied mind, who necessarily exists. Leibniz bought into Aquinas’ arguments regarding cause but saw that it did not address the why of the cause. He was the son of a professor of moral philosophy. Any independent sufficient reason for the world, then, must be non-contingent; it must be a necessary existent. They aren’t independently true apart from God’s choosing. “The fundamental principle of reasoning is that, As for Hume, although it may be in fact true that all things that exist actually do have a cause, the claim that all things that exist, Black, Max. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Objections 3.1 Explaining God 3.2 Quantum mechanics 3.3 Collapse Leibniz thought that there must be some explanation of why there is a world at all because he endorsed a certain principle about explanation, known as the principle of sufficient reason. The universe has an explanation of its existence 5. But then a further question arises: Why were the gears misaligned? ‘Crossed the Delaware’ is the predicate. Now, it follows … that it is impossible there should be a reason why God, preserving the same situations of bodies among themselves, should have placed them in space after one certain particular manner and not otherwise …. As for Hume, although it may be in fact true that all things that exist actually do have a cause, the claim that all things that exist must have a cause is problematic. Modified principle of sufficient reason . If the universe has an explanation of its existence, that explanation is God (a necessary being). The principle of poses at the end of the first paragraph of our reading for today: sufficient reason 2. Leibniz, Gottfried. “The Identity of Indiscernibles,” Mind 61, 1952: 153-163. Melamed, Yitzhak and Martin Lin, “Principle of Sufficient Reason,” in, Online Philosophy Resources Weekly Update - Daily Nous. The main cosmological argument that William Lane Craig uses is the Kalam […] Leibniz’sOntological)Arguments) How)Existence)Prevailsover)Non

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